Fıkıh

Faiz

Faiz 415 Sayfa
Yayınevi : el-Mustafa Yazar : Komisyon

Faiz, iktisadî hayatın en eski problemlerinden biridir. Faize meşruluk kazandıran devirler, bütünüyle beşerin ahlâken çöküntü içinde olduğu devirlerdir. Faiz, zengini daha zengin yaparken fakiri de daha fakir hâle getirir. Böylece her iki sınıf arasındaki uçurum her geçen gün biraz daha derinleşir. Neticede aradaki bütün köprüler yıkılır ve bu iki sınıf birbirinin en amansız düşmanı hâline gelir.

Faiz sistemi, ahlâkî bütün değerleri yıkan, yok eden bir sistemdir. İnsanın kendi öz cevherine faiz sebebiyle yaptığı zarar ve kendi ruhunda açtığı yaralar sayılamayacak kadar çoktur.

Faizcinin mihrabı menfaattir. O, menfaati için her şeyi meşru görür. Her şeyi menfaat olan bir insanın ise, hiçbir değer hükmüne saygısı olamaz. Faizcinin tek saygı duyduğu şey kendisidir. Çünkü kendisinin parası vardır ve bu parasını faize yatırmaktadır.

Bu kitapta İslam dininin büyük haramlardan kabul ettiği faizi, tarihi, sosyal, fıkhi ve diğer açılardan inceleyerek toplumun ne büyük bir tehlike ile karşı karşıya olduğuna dikkat çekilmektedir.

Faiz

15                                          Önceki Toplum ve Dinlerde Faiz
16                                                                         1- Eski Toplumlarda Faiz
16                                                                                                 Sümerler’de Faiz
16                                                                                                 Mısır’da Faiz
16                                                                                                 Babil ve Asur’da Faiz
17                                                                                                 Eski İran’da Faiz
18                                                                                                 Hindistan ve Çin’de Faiz
19                                                                                                 Yunanlılarda Faiz
21                                                                                                 Eski Roma’da Faiz
23                                                                         2. Diğer Dinlerde Faiz
23                                                                                                Brahman Dininde Faiz
24                                                                                                Yahudilerde Faiz
27                                                                                                Hıristiyanlık’ta Faiz
30                                                                                                Faiz Hilelerinin Kullanılması
31                                                                                                Faizin Sınırlarını Daraltmak
33                                                                                                Faizin Caiz Kılınmasının En Son Aşaması
40                                                                                                Faiz Karşısında Son Direnişler
43                                          Cahiliye Dönemindeki Arabistan’da Faiz
43                                                                                   Arap Yarım Adasının İktisadi Durumu
43                                                                                                                          Ticaret
46                                                                                                                          Mekke Halkının Ticarî Kapasitesi
48                                                                                                                          Kureyşlilerin Ticarî Malları
49                                                                                                                          Servet Elde Etmenin Yolları
51                                                                                                                          Arap Yarımadasında Faiz
55                                                                                                                          Cahiliye Dönemindeki Faizin Hakikatı
67                                            Birinci Fasıl Kur’ân’da Faiz
67                                                                               Riba Sözcüğünün Lügat Anlamı
70                                                                               Faizin Kur’ân-ı Kerim’de Haram Kılınışı
72                                                                                                                                 a- Müddessir Suresi 6. Ayet
76                                                                                                                                 b) Rum Suresi 39. Ayet
82                                                                                                                                 c) Nisa Suresi 160 ve 161. Ayetleri
85                                                                                                                                 d) Âl-i İmran Suresi 130 ve 131. Ayetler
101                                                                                                                                 e) Bakara Suresi 275 – 281. Ayetler
141                                            İkinci Fasıl Sünnette Faiz
141                                                                          1. Faiz Büyük Günahlardandır
142                                                                          2. Faiz Yemek En Kötü İştir
142                                                                          3. Faiz Karmaşık Bir iştir
143                                                                          4. Faiz Yemek İçin Hile Yapmak
143                                                                          5. Faiz Yiyenin Akıbeti
144                                                                          6. Faize Kâtiplik ve Şahitlik Etmenin Haram Olması
144                                                                          7. Faizin Haram Kılınma Sebebi
149                                                          Birinci Fasıl Alışverişte Faiz
149                                                                                             Alışverişteki Faizin Tanımı
150                                                                                             Hadis Yoluyla Belirlenmiş Faizli Şeyler
151                                                                                             Alışverişte olan Faizin Tahakkuk Bulmasının Şartları
151                                                                                                                                                        1. Şart: Malların Tartılır ve Ölçülür Olmaları
165                                                                                                                                                        2. Şart: Cins Birliği
171                                                                                             Alışverişte Olan Faizin Genelliği
172                                                                                                                                  Genelliğin Delilleri
174                                                                                                                                  Hususiyet Görüşünün Delilleri
175                                                                                             Faizli Alışverişin Sahih ve Batıl oluşu
180                                                                                             Alışverişteki Faizin Haram Kılınmasının Sebebi
184                                                                                                                                                  Hanbelî Mezhebi
186                                                                                                                                                  Malikî Mezhebi
187                                                                                                                                                  Hanefî Mezhebi
190                                                                                                                                                  Şafiî Mezhebi
194                                                                                                                                                  Zahirîler
196                                                                                                                                                  Mezheplerin Görüşlerinin Eleştirisi
199                                                                                             Alışverişteki Faizin Haram Kılınmasının Hikmeti
202                                                                                             Ehlisünnet Âlimlerinin Görüşleri
202                                                                                                                                  1. İbn Kayyim
206                                                                                                                                  2. Reşid Rıza
210                                                                                                                                  Bazı Şia Âlimlerinin Görüşleri
168                                                          Alışverişte Olan Faizin Kısımları
168                                                                                                 a) Nakit Faizi
169                                                                                                 b) Veresiye Faizi
217                                                          İkinci Fasıl Borç Faizi
217                                                                                     Borcun Tanımı
218                                                                                     Borç ile Deynin Farkı
218                                                                                     Karzın (Borcun) Anlamı
219                                                                                     Kur’ân’da Borç
222                                                                                     Sünnette Borç
223                                                                                     Cömertlikle ile Birlikte Alışveriş Borcu
224                                                                                     Borcun Diğer Akidlerle Farkı
224                                                                                                                   1. Borç ve Alışveriş
225                                                                                                                   2. Borç ve Selef
225                                                                                                                   3. Borç ve Vedia “Emanet”
226                                                                                                                   4. Borç ve Hibe
227                                                                                                                   5. Borç ve Ariyet/Ödünç
228                                                                                                                   6. Borç ve Kira
228                                                                                     Borç Vermenin Hükmü
232                                                                                     Borç ile Yatırım Yapmak
233                                                                                     Hangi Malı Borç Olarak Verebiliriz?
235                                                                                     Mislî Şeylerin Borç Olarak Verilmeleri
236                                                                                     Kıymî (Kıymeti Belirlenen) Şeylerin Borç Olarak Verilmeleri
242                                                                                     Borç Olarak Verilen Malın Şartları
243                                                                                                                           a) Borç Akdinde Süre Belirlenmemesi
248                                                                                     Borcu Ödemenin Önemi
250                                                                                     Borcu Ödemenin Şekli
250                                                                                     Birkaç Konu
253                                                                                     Zorluğa Düşmenin Hükmü
256                                                                                     Yatırım Yapma ve Tüketim Üzere Alınan Borçlarda Faizin Haramlığı
264                                                                                     Birkaç Önemli Ayrıntı
264                                                                                                              1. Her Türlü Fazlalık Ribadır
266                                                                                                              2. Örtülü Anlaşma
267                                                                                                              3. Başkasına Fazlalık Verilmesini Şart Koşmak
267                                                                                                              4. Kefillik ve İpotek Şartı
270                                                                                                              5. Hediye Almak
271                                                                                                              6. Şartsız Fazlalık
273                                                                                                              7. Borcu Başka Bir Mekânda Ödemek
274                                                                                                              8. Eksik Almayı Şart Koşmak
275                                                                                                              9. Borcun Azalmasına karşılık Sürenin İleri Alınması
279                                                                                                                                                                          Rebevî Borcun Sahih veya Batıl Olması
285                                              Birinci Fasıl Faizin Hileleri
285                                                                             Hilenin Tanımı
286                                                                             Şer’î Hilelerin Kısımları
289                                                                             Faiz Hilelerinin Hükmü
290                                                                                                     1. Faiz Hilelerinin Sahih ve Batıl Olma Yönünden Hükümleri
313                                                                                                     2. Faiz Hilelerinin Haramlık ve Helâllik Yönünden Hükümleri
322                                                                             Faiz Hilelerinin Çeşitleri
322                                                                                                         Alışverişteki Faizin Hileleri
330                                                                                                         Borç Faizinin Hileleri
341                                                                                                                                2. Şartlı Alışveriş
343                                                                                                                                3. Muhabatî Alışveriş
343                                                                                                         4. Kâğıt Para Alım Satımı
357                                                                             Ehlisünnet Fıkhında Faiz Hileleri
359                                                                                                                 Ehlisünnet Arasında Faiz Hilelerinin Çeşitleri
367                                              İkinci Fasıl Faizin İstisnaları
367                                                                                  1. Baba İle Evlat Arasındaki Faiz
371                                                                                  2. Karı İle Koca Arasındaki Faiz
371                                                                                  3. Köle İle Efendisi Arasındaki Faiz
372                                                                                  4. Müslüman İle Kâfir Arasındaki Faiz
372                                                                                                                            a) Müslüman ve Kâfir-i Harbî
374                                                                                                                            b) Müslüman ve Zimmî Kâfir
376                                                                                  Ehlisünnet’in Eleştirisi
381                                                                                  İstisna Edilen Konularla Başka Konuların Mukayesesi
381                                                                                                                                        1: Devlet ve Halk Arasındaki Faiz
386                                                                                                                                        2. İktisadî Kurum ve Şirketlerde Faiz
395 Kaynaklar

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